How to use SPSS software for Data Analysis in Research Papers?

How to use SPSS software for Data Analysis in Research Papers?

Data analysis is a bitter topic to most students and researchers simply because of the complexities they find when doing their statistical analysis. Although many solutions are already available in the world to help out researchers with their analyzing process, one specific tool stands out from the rest due to its user-friendliness and accuracy. That’s none other than SPSS Software which stands for Statistical Package for the Social Sciences.

Before moving on to anything deep, let’s explore its history!

So, this is not a newly established software at all. SPSS Inc. introduced this statistical analysis tool back in 1968 and it primarily focussed on analyzing social science data. But today, the SPSS software you come across comes from IBM as they acquired SPSS Inc in 2009. IBM made it a straightforward tool with user manuals to make the analysis all easy and also with an English-like command language that every user could easily understand.

Today, educational researchers, corporate surveyors, health researchers, marketing companies, data minors, and even government institutions widely use SPSS software for their data analyzing jobs, and it has become an everyday thing!

Now, let’s get on to how SPSS helps researchers with complicated data analysis requirements. Thanks to different programs set up by this software, data analysis has become a hassle-free journey. These programs define the 4 core functions of SPSS.

Statistical Program – includes basic functions such as frequencies and cross-tabulation
Modeler Program – an advanced procedure that helps researchers to develop and validate predictive models
Text Analytics for Survey Programs – A powerful program especially when analysing open-ended research questions (Helps in deriving insights from diverse responses)
Visualization Designer – Includes visual representations such as density charts and boxplots

So, having learned all these, do you know why you should use SPSS data analysis software when you are doing your research, at the university, or even at the workplace? Here are some of the best reasons.

  • Exporting data to SPSS is super is easy and hassle-free (SAV format will have to be used)
  • SPSS software is flexible, and it can also be customised- even if you have the most complex data set in the world!
  • The predictive modes here are accurate and help derive the best conclusions
  • The analysing process becomes fast and smart

Now, you are about to get basic SPSS software training! Worry not- this is going to be easy and simple. Learn the steps one by one, and that’s all you’ve got to do.

Step 01

Step one is to load an excel sheet with all the necessary data. If you are a researcher, this can be taken as the response sheet of your research questions. Make sure you use the appropriate tabular forms when you are doing this.

When analyzing research data, you may come across 4 types of data- namely, Nominal Data, Ordina Data, Interval Data, and Ratio Data.

  • Nominal Data- These data can be coded in terms of numbers but they   have no value. Basically, they can be called ‘labels’ (Colour of the vehicle, Gender, Name of the students)
  • Ordinal Data- Although nominal data cannot be put in respective order, ordinal data can be. In researches, you have seen the usage of Lickert scale questions, right? Responses to these normally come under this data category. (Strongly agree- 5, agree- 4, neutral -3. Disagree-2, strongly disagree- 1)
  • Interval Data- As the name suggests, the intervals of these numerical data have meaning.
  • Ratio Data- Numerical data such as heights, weights, marks, ages, and wages all come under this category of data.
How to use SPSS software for Data Analysis in Research Papers?
Step 02

Step two is all about inputting your data into SPSS. Since you have all your required data arranged in an excel sheet now, in this step, you just have to import that data.

Step 03

In this step, you should give the right commands to the SPSS program. First, have an understanding of the type of analysis you should apply to your data set (depending on your research), then give whichever specific SPSS command.

Learning tip- If you want to make yourself familiarised with the set of commands, you may use all of them on a trial version and see the results. These commands are easy to understand.

Step 04

Now, retrieve the results. According to the command you did input previously, your analysis result will come. SPSS is fast and smart, so you’ll be getting the results in a blink of an eye.

Step 05

It’s a fact that information is better understood when they are illustrated graphically. For this SPSS has a smart visual presentation tool.

Since you already have the set of results, you may now analyze those results using graphs and charts.

Step 06

This is the final step. Here, you come to your conclusion based on the analysis done. If you do research, the ultimate objective is to arrive at a conclusion and then recommendations based on what you have found during your survey.

SPSS also helps in predicting future trends, making the workload of the researcher even lesser.

And, here are some of the statistical operations that might be useful for you to know. Courses teaching SPSS software for students teach the following as well for a smooth flow of analyzing. (these are very important when dealing with the Table of Statistics in SPSS)

  • Mean – All the numbers added together and dividing that by the number of values
  • Median – The number in the middle of a distribution
  • The Range – The difference between the largest and the lowest values in the distribution

There are also some other useful operations such as Standard Deviation and Percentiles that you should be knowing about when using the SPSS software. Join an online course for SPSS and make sure you grab all that you need to learn about the SPSS software through the course program.

Since SPSS is a software that gets updated frequently, it’s advised to learn from the latest version so that understanding the amendments coming in the future will be easier for you!

March 7, 2022

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